Lichens - Glossary
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Apothecium {pl. apothecia). cup-shaped, spore-bearing structures produced by certain types of fungi and lichens.
Ascospores these are the spores of sexual origin, produced inside the ascus.
Ascus (Pl. asci.) a sac-like cell of an ascomycete within which ascospores are formed.
Asexual a form of reproduction neither preceded nor followed by meiosis in fungi and lichens

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Carbohydrate organic compound consisting of a chain of carbon atoms to which hydrogen and oxygen are attached in a 2:1 ratio, e.g., sugars, starch, glycogen, cellulose.
Chlorophyll the green pigment of plants that captures the energy from sunlight necessary for photosynthesis.
Chlorophyta a green alga, division of the Protista Kingdom
Chromosome a thread-like structure in the nucleus of a cell, containing a linear sequence of genes.
Cilium (pl. cilia) a short hair.
Cortex the dense, outermost layer of most thalli.
Cyanobacterium (pl. cyanobacteria) a blue-green alga from the Monera Kingdom
Cytoplasm the contents of a cell; includes the organelles but not the nucleus.

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Diploid having two of the basic sets of chromosomes in the nucleus.

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Eukaryote cell or organism with a membrane-bound, structurally discrete nucleus and other well-developed subcellular compartments.

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Hypha (pl. hyphae) a fungal filament.

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Isidia simple or branched protuberances of the cortex in lichens, which may break off and act as a form of vegetative propagule.

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Lobulate with small lobes.
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Meiosis the process in which a single diploid cell becomes four haploid cells in two consecutive divisions of the nucleus of an eukaryotic cell.
Mycobiont the fungal partner of a lichen
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Nucleus (Pl. nuclei, adj. nuclear) the cellular organelle in eukaryotes that contains the genetic material.

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Organelle a membrane-bound body found in the cytoplasm of the cell that performs specific cellular functions.

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Pendulous hanging down.
Photobiont the photosynthetic partner of a lichen, it can be either a green alga or a cyanobacterium or some times both types.
Photosynthesis the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy.
Podetium (pl. podetia) a stalk-like algae-containing base of an apothecium
Propagule a thallus fragment containing both the mycobiont and photobiont.

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Rhizine a root-like cluster of hyphae adapted for attaching a thallus to its substrate.

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Sexually Reproduction - the fusion of gametes followed by meiosis and recombination at some point in the life cycle.
Soredia (sing. Soredium) lichen propagules -- small aggregations of fungal hyphae around alga cells; formed by the break up of a thallus.
Spore a reproductive body produced by certain fungi and other organisms, capable of growing into a new individual under proper conditions.
Substrate the surface which an organism is growing on.

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Thallus (pl. Thalli) - the usually ill-defined `body' of a lichen.

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