Forest Fungi - Glossary
-- A --
Aethalium (pl. Aethalia) A large, sessile, round or mound-shaped fruiting body formed from all or part of the plasmodium.
Ascus (Pl. asci.) a sac-like cell of an ascomycete within which ascospores are formed.
Ascocarp fruiting body of ascomycete.
Ascoma ( pl. ascomata) an ascus-producing structure; a fruit-body containing asci.
Ascomycete a class of fungi.
Ascospores these are the spores of sexual origin, produced inside the ascus.
Asexual not forming part of a cycle which involves fertilisation and meiosis.
Agaric the generic term used to denote fungi which have gills beneath the cap.
Annulus the ring of tissue left on the stalk (stipe) of a mushroom when the partial veil (pileus) breaks.
Apiculus of basidiospores short point at basal end of spore by which it was attached to the sterigma.
Apothecium disc-like structure of hymenium with asci.

-- B --
Bacterium (Pl. bacteria). a single-celled, microscopic, plantlike organism that lacks a nucleus. Most bacteria obtain their nitrogen and energy from organic matter; some bacteria cause plant or animal diseases.
Basidiocarp fruiting body of basidiomycete.
Basidium (Pl. Basidia) clavate to cylindric cell, bearing usually four basidiospores.
Basidiomycete a class of fungi.
Basidiospores sexual spore of a basidiomycete.

-- C --
Capillitium mass of thread-like hairs aiding dispersal of dry powdery spores.
Cellulose apolysaccharide that serves as a structural molecule in plants
Chlorophyll a green, light-absorbing pigment found in plants and other photosynthetic organisms.
Chitin a cross linked polymer that is the major structural component of fungal cell walls.
Chromosome a thread-like structure in the nucleus of a cell, containing a linear sequence of genes.
Clamp connection a recurving outgrowth of a cell that, at cell division, acts as a bridge to allow passage of one of the products of nuclear division into the penultimate cell, thereby assuring maintenance of the dikaryotic condition.
Columella internal stem like column.
Confluent flowing together.
Conidiophore a hypha, often specialised in
structure, that bears one or more conidia.
Conidium (Pl. conidia.) a asexual spore of fungus, borne at the tip of a specialised hypha conidiophore.
Coprophilous fungi living on dung; include many zygomycetes, ascomycetes and basidiomycetes.
Cuticle the thin skin which covers the cap of fungi.
Cytoplasm the contents of a cell; includes the organelles but not the nucleus.

-- D --
Decurrent of gills, tubes, etc. partly attached to stem.
Deuteromycetes A class of fungi that have no sexual reproduction and are consequently called the Fungi Imperfecti because their life cycles are "imperfect". Most reproduce by conidia.
Diploid having two of the basic sets of chromosomes in the nucleus.
Dikaryon a pair of nuclei that associate and divide simultaneously.

-- E --
Enzymes proteins that act as catalysts, speeding the rate at which biochemical reactions proceed.
Eukaryote cell or organism with a membrane-bound, structurally discrete nucleus and other well-developed subcellular compartments.

-- F --
Flagellate having one or more flagella.
Flagellum (Pl. flagella.) a whip-like appendage responsible for mobility in protists, fungi etc.

-- G --
Genus name for a readily recognisable group of species.
Germ pore a thin circular area in the spore wall through which the germ tube develops.
Gills thin plate like structure of agaric fructification, bearing the spores.
Gleba mass of internal tissue bearing spore.
Glutinous with sticky mucous.

-- H --
Haploid having a single set of chromosomes in the nucleus
Hymenium the fertile layer which contains or carries the asci or basidia with their supporting cells.
Hypha (pl. hyphae) individual microscopic thread of fungal growth.
Hyphae a group of microscopic threads of fungal growth.

-- I --
Involute inrolled

-- J --

-- K --
karyogamy the fusion of two nuclei.

-- L --
Lignin organic substances which act as binders for the cellulose fibers in wood and certain plants.

-- M --
Meiosis the process in which a single diploid cell becomes four haploid cells in two consecutive divisions of the nucleus of an eukaryotic cell.
Mitosis the process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells that produces two daughter cells from one mother cell, all of which are genetically identical to each other.
Mycelium a collective term for the individual hyphae which make up the vegetative body of fungus.
Mycorrhiza a symbiotic union between a fungus and a plant root.
Myxamoeba a naked cell capable of amoeboid movement, characteristic of the vegetative phase of myxomycetes
Myxomycetes the slime moulds, a class of fungi characterized by amoeboid vegetative protoplasts, plasmodia, and by brightly colored spore bearing capillitia.

-- N --
Nucleus (Pl. nuclei, adj. nuclear) the cellular organelle in eukaryotes that contains the genetic material.

-- O --
Operculate of an ascus or sporangium, opening by a subcircular apical lid to discharge spores.
Operculum a small round lid.
Organelle a membrane-bound body found in the cytoplasm of the cell that performs specific cellular functions.
Ostiole a neck-like structure in an ascocarp, lined with pariphyses, and terminating in a pore. Or the opening of a pycnidium.

-- P --
Parasite an organism living on, or in a different organism and deriving nourishment from it.
Parasitic having the characteristics of a parasite.
Perithecium (Pl. perithecia) a pear shaped, ostiolate fruit body characteristic of Ascomycetes.
Peridium outer enclosing wall of gasteromycete fructification.
Pileus cap of fructification.
Plasmodium (Pl. plasmodia.) (adj. plasmodial) a multinucleated, usually naked (i.e., bounded only by a plasma membrane) mass of protoplasm that is usually motile and variable in size and form.
Plasmogamy the fusion of two protoplasts.
Protein a large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order.
Protoplast a cell from which the cell wall has been removed.
Protoplasm the entire contents of a live cell.
Pseudoaethalium (Pl. pseudoaethalia) a type of fruiting body that consists of a mass of sporangia tightly packed together to resemble an aethalium.
Polypore a fungus with pores beneath the cap.
Pores an opening on the fertile surface of bolete and polypore fungi, through which basidiospores are disseminated.

-- Q --

-- U --

-- R --
Resupinate a fruiting body reclined or flat on the substratum.
Rhizomorph a visible root like strand or threads of compacted hyphae.

-- S --
Saprophyte living on dead organic matter.
Sclerotium (Pl. sclerotia.) Hard, resistant, multicellular resting body, that under favourable conditions can germinate to produce mycelium or sexual or asexual fruiting bodies.
Sessile lacking a stalk attached directly to the substrate.
Septate divided internally by partitions.
Spore the reproductive structure of fungi corresponding to a seed in flowering plants.
Sporocarp fruiting body bearing spores.
Sporophore a structure that bears the spore producing structures and spores in fleshy and woody fungi.
Sporangium (Pl. sporangia) a type of fruiting body formed when a plasmodium breaks up into a number of small portions.
Sterigma tiny stalk on basidium bearing a basidiospore.
Stipe a stalk like or stem like structure that supports the pileus of a basidiomycete fruiting body.
Stroma fungal tissue which is not itself reproductive, but may bear epoductive structures such as conidia and perithecia.
-- T --
Thallus (Pl. thalli.) Any simple vegetative plant body that lacks roots, stems and leaves.
Trama Inner tissue of the gill in Agarics.
Toxic poisonous.

-- U --
Unitunicate having a single-layered ascus wall.
Unicellular describes an organism that has only one cell.
Universal veil membrane completely enclosing a young sporocarp.

-- V --
Veil a covering membrane.
Volva a membranous basal structure containing the base of the stalk of certain fungi.

-- W --

-- X --

-- Y --
Yellow a colour used to indicate that a word is linked to the glossary. Only show in version 4+ browsers.

-- Z --
Zygomycetes a class of fungi.
Zygote a diploid nucleus resulting from the union of two haploid nuclei.
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