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Identification Guide
Fungi:> Basidiomycota:> Agaricomycetes:> Agaricales:> Tricholomataceae:> Camarophyllus, Gliophorus, Humidicutis, Hygrocybe, Hygrophorus, Lichenomphalia.
This is a large group of around 60 species in New Zealand, of which most are small to medium-sized and brightly coloured, saprophytic on leaf litter with white spores. Their common names of waxgill or waxcap are due to the wax-like appearance of the gill surface. This family is divided into a number of different genuses based on microscopic features.  As usual, the moment you start looking closely at a family, it's not long before misidentified and unnamed species start turning up. Unfortunately, recent DNA sequencing has done little to sort these out, other than to confirm that there are misidentified and unnamed species present in New Zealand. 
Genus: Camarophyllus
Camarophyllus muritaiensis Camarophyllus muritaiensis
Genus: Cuphophyllus
Species are distinguished from most other waxcaps by producing basidiocarps (fruit bodies) with strongly decurrent lamellae (gills).
Camarophyllus pratensis var. gracilis Cuphophyllus austropratensis
Camarophyllus apricosusCuphophyllus apricosus
Camarophyllus apricosusCuphophyllus aurantiopallens
Cuphophyllus cheelii
Cuphophyllus canus Cuphophyllus canus
Cuphophyllus griseorufescens
Cuphophyllus salmonipesCuphophyllus salmonipes
Undescribed Cuphophyllus
Resent DNA sequencing has shown this to be an unnamed species.
Camarophyllus sp. Cuphophyllus sp.
Genus: Gliophorus
Hygrophorus SporesThese are small, brightly-coloured, saprobic, soil and litter-inhabiting fungi. Gliophorus distinguishes itself by having a thick glutinous cap and stem that are viscid to glutinous, in some cases with a glutinous edge to the gills. There are at least twelve Gliophorus species reported in New Zealand and a few undescribed ones. Identification is largely dependent on colour, size, and the shape of the cap.
 Gliophorus fumosogriseusGliophorus fumosogriseus
 Gliophorus graminicolorGliophorus graminicolor
Gliophorus lilacinoidesGliophorus lilacinoides
Gliophorus lilacipesGliophorus lilacipes
Gliophorus luteoglutinosusGliophorus luteoglutinosus
Gliophorus pallidus Gliophorus pallidus
Gliophorus psittacinus Gliophorus psittacinus
Gliophorus sulfureus Gliophorus sulfureus
Gliophorus versicolorGliophorus versicolor
Gliophorus viridis Gliophorus viridis
Gliophorus viscaurantius Gliophorus viscaurantius
Undescribed Gliophorus
Gliophorus sp.Gliophorus species
Gliophorus sp.Gliophorus sp
Gliophorus sp. Gliophorus species
Gliophorus sp. Gliophorus species
A very similar genus to the Gliophorus, which took DNA to separate it from them. A small genus of yellow species, with only one species in New Zealand and a few others worldwide.
Gloioxanthomyces chromolimoneussGloioxanthomyces chromolimoneuss
Genus: Humidicutis
This small genus of brightly coloured saprobic agarics is distinguished from the other wax-gills by the cap that splits even in very young specimens. The split occurs in such a way as to pull apart the two faces of a single gill. found growing in moss or leaf litter on the forest floor during late autumn, with caps that are moist to viscid. Microscopically, it is recognised by the absence of clamp connections in all tissues except at the base of basidia where large medallion clamps occur.
Humidicutis conspicua Humidicutis conspicua
Humidicutis multicolor Humidicutis multicolor
Humidicutis mavis Humidicutis mavis
Humidicutis horakiiHumidicutis horakii
Humidicutis luteovirens Humidicutis luteovirens
Humidicutis luteovirens Humidicutis luteovirens?
Humidicutis lewelliniae Humidicutis lewelliniae
Undescribed Humidicutis
Humidicutis sp. Humidicutis species
Humidicutis sp. Humidicutis species
Genus: Hygrocybe
This large group of saprobic fungi, with white spores, They have thick, waxy gills and a translucent texture, particularly evident in the gills. Some are drab, but most are bright with striking colours dominated by red, orange, and yellow fruiting bodies. Common during the colder and wetter months of the year, sometimes in large numbers. Microscopically, this genus is distinguished from the other waxgills in this group by subparallel to parallel lamellar trama.
Hygrocybe cavipesHygrocybe cavipes
Hygrocybe cerinolutea Hygrocybe cerinolutea
Hygrocybe blanda Hygrocybe blanda
Hygrocybe elegans Hygrocybe elegans
Hygrocybe fuliginata Hygrocybe fuliginata
Hygrocybe fuscoaurantiaca Hygrocybe fuscoaurantiaca
Hygrocybe julietae Hygrocybe julietae
Hygrocybe keithgeorgii Hygrocybe keithgeorgii
Hygrocybe lilaceolamellata Hygrocybe lilaceolamellata
Hygrocybe procera Hygrocybe procera
Hygrocybe rubrocarnosa Hygrocybe rubrocarnosa
Hygrocybe striatoluteaHygrocybe striatolutea
Undescribed (Named): Hygrocybe
Hygrocybe sp. Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe cantharellus Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe species Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe species Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe sp. Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe sp. Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe sp. Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe speciesHygrocybe species
Hygrocybe species Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe species Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe Section Firmae
Section Firmae contains fungi which have dimorphous spores and, in some cases, basida (dimorphous means of two different sizes). Only one species is described in New Zealand, that being H. firma. This name is doubtful and originates from a species described from Sri Lanka. Recent DNA sequencing has confirmed that this species does not occur in New Zealand, though we do have six species within sect. Firmae, none of which are named. The following four species are the ones I have come across that are in sect. firmae. I don’t know if these are the same as the six mentioned above or different ones again. Care is needed when looking at these microscopically, as failing to see the dimorphous spores can result in this species being misidentified.
Hygrocybe firma Hygrocybe aff. firma (orange/yellow)
Hygrocybe firma Hygrocybe firma
Hygrocybe firma Hygrocybe aff. firma (Red)
Hygrocybe firma Hygrocybe aff. firma (Large Red)
Blackening Waxgills
This small group of waxgills are recognised by their habit of going black with age or when damaged. Three species are found in NZ. Only two are shown here. One, H. astatogala, is native and found in forest habitats, and the other two are introduced and found in grassland. H. astatogala comes in different colour forms, although no one has explained why this is the case.
Bertrandia asatogala Hygrocybe astatogala
Hygrocybe sp. Hygrocybe astatogala
Bertrandia sp Hygrocybe astatogala
Hygrocybe conica Hygrocybe conica
Genus: Hygrophorus
This genus is also part of the wax gill group and is believed to be mycorrhizal. Colours tend to be dull whites and yellows. Recognised microscopically by their divergent lamellar trama.
Hygrophorus involutusHygrophorus involutus
Genus: Neohygrocybe
A small genus of two described species in New Zealand that look more like a Tricholoma than a Hygrocybe. Thus, they are often overlooked or misidentified.
Neohygrocybe sp.Neohygrocybe sp.
Genus: Lichenomphalia
Lichenomphalia sp.Lichenomphalia species
The Hidden Forest   Forest Fungi